灯光点亮了校园的绿油油和一幕幕的风景

Making the switch to a net-zero mindset: 'Addressing the climate problem is not a technical fix alone.'

1月. 13, 2022, 6:48 a.m.

绿色技术有望显著减少碳排放,帮助人类避免气候变化带来的最严重影响. 但是,如果没有个人和团体的支持——无论是建立新的习惯和惯例来节约能源,还是激励人们制定政策来实现向清洁技术的过渡——进展很可能会远远慢于所需.

beplay体育将在2046年建校300周年之际,实现校园零碳排放, 它已经将这种改变作为其总体计划的一个关键组成部分. 除了安装新系统之外 节能、无燃烧技术 由太阳能和风能等可再生能源驱动, beplay体育正在评估其校园文化的能源使用,以进一步减少能源需求和促进节约思维.

“解决气候问题不仅仅是一个技术解决方案,ijoma Nwagwu说, assistant director for academic eng年龄ment and campus as lab initiatives in Princeton’s 可持续发展办公室. “We are on the road to doing everything we can technologically to get us to net-zero. 但应对气候变化还有一个潜在的人为因素. To see lasting progress, everyone has to be aligned with where we are going.”

该大学已聘请了evidence, 一家国际行为科学公司, 支持设计, 在校园内实施和评估试点计划,以减少能源消耗,并有助于实现beplay体育的 可持续发展目标.

“弄清楚能源系统和行为之间的相互作用, 在基础设施和个人行为之间, 是可持续发展思想的先锋吗,莎娜·韦伯说, beplay体育可持续发展办公室主任. “在示范规模上工作是必不可少的. Any successful methods that emerge may very well be repeatable and scalable.”

韦伯补充说:“如果beplay体育想要改变任何规模的行为, 一个普遍的, persistent and sustained narrative from all levels of leader船 is almost a prerequisite for success. We all need reminders when trying to adopt new habits — they rarely happen on their own, 即使欲望是存在的.”

作为 beplay官网app下载E-filliates伙伴这是一个由美国联邦贸易委员会管理的企业会员项目 Andlinger能源和环境中心, evidence已经在与beplay体育的学者合作,研究可能阻碍全球成功能源转型的因素,并设计干预措施,促进新能源技术的采用. evidence也吸引博士后, graduate students and undergraduates in thinking through behavior around energy use and developing solutions.

evidence与beplay体育的咨询工作分为三个阶段. 第一阶段, 它始于2021年夏天, is an analysis exploring the myriad underlying and interconnected factors that impact energy consumption on campus. 第二和第三阶段, 这将延续到2022年, focus on the initial design and testing of strategies grounded in behavior science.

到目前为止, Evidn, 与beplay体育的可持续发展办公室合作, has eng年龄d individuals within more than 25 campus departments and groups.

约翰·皮克林, chief behavioral scientist for Evidn and a non-resident fellow at the Andlinger Center, beplay体育通过其结合热泵的无燃烧能源系统(目前正在建设中)可以实现校园碳排放目标的80%, thermal stor年龄 and geo-exchange — along with energy improvements in its buildings, 也通过向可再生能源的过渡. The remaining percent年龄, however, rests with the campus community, he said.

“There’s a component of this transition to net-zero that is behavioral, 它涉及到人员和决策,皮克林说:. “beplay体育的目标是理解这些行为和决定是什么, 以及beplay体育如何对他们产生有意义的影响.”

“Princeton is leading the work of net-zero transitions internationally and what’s involved in doing that successfully,”他补充道. “There’s an opportunity for Princeton to show how all the parts interconnect — the technology, 科学, 基础设施, 的行为, 治理——以及所有这些如何协同工作以实现净零.”

记得关灯和通风柜

在实验室工作的学生

整个大学实验室使用的通风柜, 比如弗里克化学实验室展示的那些, 这是一个重要的安全特性吗, 但他们也是beplay官网app下载校园最大的能源消耗者之一,需要的能源相当于一个或多个家庭的能源. As the University is taking steps to reach net-zero campus carbon emissions, 它正在寻求减少能源消耗的方法,方法是鼓励研究人员在通风柜不使用时关闭通风柜的窗扇.

Evidn’s initial analysis of the University community zeroes in on three areas. 一个是beplay官网app下载实验室通风柜的使用. Across campus there are 738 fume hoods, which pull dangerous or odorous substances from the air.

每个通风柜可以使用相当于一个或多个家庭的能源, 因此,在不使用的时候关闭他们的饰带(保护研究人员在通风柜内进行实验的屏障)是很重要的. When the sashes are closed, the fans that pull air through the hood ramp down and use less energy.

2021年秋天, 一名计算机科学本科课程的学生开始开发一种基于网络的仪表盘,可以帮助beplay官网app下载实验室的研究人员跟踪他们的能源使用情况.

For the project, the students examined energy consumption by fume hoods in the Icahn Laboratory. 他们使用了约书亚·拉比诺维茨实验室的实时数据, professor of chemistry and the Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, 为他们的仪表盘创建一个原型.

当这样的仪表板完全实现时, lab members could use it to monitor the impacts of their energy consumption and set energy use goals.

摩根提幔, 一个在项目组工作的大三学生, 她的团队对伊坎实验室中持续使用的耗能装置进行了盘点,这让她大开眼界, 即使不积极使用.

“Maybe it’s baked into campus culture or baked into the United States’ culture, but no one is recognizing or registering that things are always running, 你需要一个显示器来识别和影响变化,”提幔说.

在beplay官网app下载,个人行为可以产生重大影响的另一个领域是教室和演讲厅等活动设施的使用, 艺术表演场所, 和体育设施. 一旦为某个活动预留了空间, its heating or cooling systems must be turned on (depending on the season), 还有灯光和音频, 视觉和数字能力. 这些都需要消耗大量的能量.

如果系统在事件发生前过早启动,或在需要时很长时间后关闭,或者连续运行,那么能源浪费是非常严重的.

灯光设置在剧院

校园内的活动空间会消耗大量的能量, 特别是当它们的系统在事件发生之前过早地启用或在需要时很长时间后关闭时——或者它们继续运行时. Event schedulers can help to cut back on energy us年龄 by scheduling only for the time a space will be in use, 或者,如果某个活动不再举行,可以取消预订.

最后, 大学有机会以学生为目标, 更广泛的教职员习惯. While this represents a smaller percent年龄 of energy use — student residential hall energy consumption, 例如, 约占beplay体育总数的10%——激励校园社区每天更有意识地使用能源,为围绕可持续性的参与和社区建设提供了机会.

“在校园,这是三个领域中影响最小的, 但它与最重要的一点有关, which is we need a cultural and behavioral glue that brings this all together,皮克林说:.

说到行为科学, getting people to change their behaviors is not the hardest part — it’s getting that behavior change to last, 皮克林说. And that can’t happen unless there is systemic change from the bottom to the top of any organization. 换句话说, 个人的选择和行动很重要, but so is their context and meaning within a larger group or organization.

“如果这不是行动呼吁的一部分, 人们不知道他们为什么要这么做, 这种行为很快就会退化,”他说. “所以你需要一套策略. It’s the overarching vision and the mission, and the reminder of the why.”

个人的力量

Individual change starts with helping people to feel that they have 年龄ncy, and that their actions will make a difference in the global climate problem, 主任elik韦伯, 格哈德•R. Andlinger能源与环境教授, professor of psychology and the School of Public and International Affairs.

韦伯, 谁研究人类对气候变化和能源转型的反应, explained that people make decisions by three different processes: through reason, 通过情感, 或者基于规则. 当这三种因素都在决策中发挥作用时, 持久的行为改变可以扎根.

“行为的改变需要对你试图改变的群体有深入的了解——他们的目标、恐惧和希望是什么。, and how they prefer to process information and from what sources they get it,韦伯说:.

还需要考虑如何包装信息. “如果你建好了,他们可能就不会来了,”韦伯说. “所以单靠工程解决方案是不够的.” Encouraging change in a way that resonates with the community is essential, 随着政府和机构考虑如何减少能源消耗,制定新的政策和技术,这需要大规模地进行.

政策解决方案需要经过深思熟虑的研究, 目标和消息传递, 韦伯说, especially since motivating people to make certain choices can take on many different forms. “我认为beplay体育的政策制定者还没有充分意识到与人类行为相关的丰富信息,他们需要考虑制定好的政策,并以最佳方式实施它们,”韦伯解释说. “假设你想补贴电动汽车. 你可以用不同的方式来做. You can do that at the point of purchase or as a refund on people's annual income tax return. The first way is far superior for a long list of psychological reasons.”

从社区和作为beplay官网app下载学习

与beplay体育的大多数可持续发展项目一样——其中许多项目都处于国内和国际类似能源转型的前沿——教员, postdocs and students are able to join through coursework and research.

冬青Caggiano, Andlinger中心的杰出博士后研究员, 是否有一名研究人员将与教员有关, 该公司对beplay体育校园文化和具体节能需求的研究,激发了教职工和学生的主动性.

Caggiano说,她感兴趣的是,在学校里,围绕可持续发展采取的行动是什么,并成为beplay体育日常生活的一部分. 通过她的研究, she also plans to investigate whether students feel they have 年龄ncy to make change, 他们如何响应自上而下的指令, 同伴影响的影响是什么.

“Princeton has the opportunity to not only reduce its environmental impact, 但也要参与到与学生的对话中, 教师 和工作人员 in a more holistic way that informs the way they think about energy and resource consumption,”Caggiano说.

这些发现有助于就能源使用进行有效的信息传递, 不仅仅是在beplay官网app下载, 但是在其他地方. “这项工作最令人兴奋的部分之一是,有机会将beplay官网app下载定位为校园变革的孵化器, 但beplay体育的社区成员遍布世界各地,”她说.